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Natural Resources

Articles on natural resources in the ancient Indus civilization

Commodities and Things: The Kulli in Context

A closer look at the mysterious Kulli culture of Balochistan that both pre-dated and was contemporaneous with ancient Indus culture, and apparently was part of an elaborate trading network that stretched west as far as the Jiroft culture in Iran.

An Archaeological Survey in the Neighborhood of Thari in the Thar Desert (Sindh, Pakistan)

Paolo Biagi and G. Mohiuddin Veesar report on the discovery of many Mesolithic (roughly 10,000 BCE and afterwards, many thousands of years before the height of the Indus Civilization) sites in the Thar Desert in the 1990s.

The Shell Middens of the Bay of Daun

Environmental Changes and Human Impact Along the Cost of Las Bela (Balochistan, Pakistan) Between the 8th and 5th Millenium BP

The stone and shell beads of the shell-midden settlement of RH-5 (Muscat, Sultanate of Oman)

A look at shell-midden and cemetery sites discovered in Oman that date back to the fifth millenium BCE, testifying to the levels of development in areas around the Indus Valley civilization thousands of years before it reached its peak.

The early Paleolithic sites of the Rohri Hills (Sind, Pakistan) and their environmental significance

One of the first articles to explore the significance of the Rohri flint mines near Mohenjo-daro, who use reaches back hundreds of thousands of years and which played an important role in the ancient Indus civilization as well.

Technological choices and lithic production in the Indus period: Case studies from Sindh (Pakistan)

This paper analyses the complexity of the lithic (stone) production of the Indus Civilisation.

Ancient Indus Silver Isotope Analysis

Nondestructive Pb Isotope Sampling and Analysis of Archaeological Silver Using EDTA and ICP-MS

The prehistoric flint mines at Jhimpir in Lower Sindh

New finds from 2010 at one of the earliest flint mines in South Asia.

Moving Mountains: The Trade and Transport of Rocks and Minerals with the Greater Indus Valley Region

This paper first examines harappa’s rock and mineral assemblage from the perspective of the greater Indus Valley’s complex geology, the distance one would have to travel to acquire certain materials and a discussion of the differing motivations behind the acquisition and transport of rock and minerals in the greater Indus Valley region.